Science Of Sex Differences


Special guest post by Jessie Nagy

Duplicating points is an important strategy because in the “sea of noise” things are read in segments.

You don’t need to make hour long recordings to analyze this fake thing called feminism per se. That’s only important to an extent. It’s often better to just leave it at the fact that it is just some fake thing. What’s much more important is discovering female nature, as well as male nature.
I take notes on this harder science becuase I’m also in the processing of refining my skill in that field, which is why I have been using a rote method of noting. The psychology & the philosophy is a bit different.

Biology/nature precedes culture. Any cultural shifting of that nature is dependent of that nature.
There is no rat culture, & that’s why it is valid to employ scientific research based on zoology without the distractions of the cultural acts.
This type of science is much too important to review innaccurately because there is an even larger amount of cultural info. inconsistent & lazy to realism, partly because it’s much faster & easier to make interpretations based on short-sight then it is to actually prepare all of the requirements of science. For instance: I’ve even recieved from the new-age community of the concept of the “right brain being feminine” & “left brain being masculine”. Some such people of the latter simplification have even held lectures. You can’t simplify something like neuroscience just like that. You don’t do cultural interpretations first & then try to apply it to science. You have to do it the other way around; you seek science first, then derive other analysis from that science. That’s why a precise reporting is needed.
There are sub-categories of sex differences factoring of hormonal levels, which is translated to gender, i.e., a male can still be highly effeminate – homosexual, bisexual, or still a heterosexual with very low testosterone. However, even though testosterone is a major factor of “masculinizing” the brain, to what degree it affects gender is still not completely certain. Gender can also be more of a feeling. The concept of gender, however, is not applied in the same way that biological scientists would by people with anti-realist agendas. Gender is strategically misappropriated, with no understanding of biological probabilism, by feminists & the like to try to evade the entire reality of sex differences as a means of steering the narrative away from critiques of female nature – you-can’t-criticize-a-woman. They don’t even care for the science of gender itself, but is merely used as a spanning tactic to pause appositional debating. There are sometimes some males who can still be biologically highly masculine & still act feminine – showmanship/”cartoon-characters”/metrosexuals, etc., these are usally just some trendy phases, which is often what feminists & the like use because they’re still stuck on the level of mainstream iconography. You can not attribute psychological condition for gender, but that is essentially the cultural – non-scientific – interpretations; a male who has had some horrible experience; seeing horrors in a war, then becoming depressed, then the culture making lose associations – “effeminate” due to passive depression. It doesn’t work like that. There is seriously stuff regarding sex differences, & it’s other derivative – gender – on that level of interpretation.
Sexual distinctions of the male & female brain is caused by activity of sex hormones in early postnatal & fetal life, although current evidence of genes on either the X or Y chromosome suggests probable contribution to it. Scientists have found statistically and biologically significant differences between the brains of men and women that are similar to sex differences found in experimental animals. These include differences in the size and shape of brain structures in the hypothalamus and the arrangement of neurons in the cortex and hippocampus. Sex differences go well beyond sexual behavior and reproduction and affect many brain regions and functions, ranging from mechanisms for perceiving pain and dealing with stress to strategies for solving cognitive problems.
During development, many biological events eventualizes that distinctly modifys females & males. Particularly, sex definitive genes that are caused by the sex-chromosome complex installs augmentation that formalizes a morphon’s sex, adding to conduction of the dissimilitude of phsyiology in sex-categorical forms. Such processes serves to numerous particular sex distinctions, among even susceptibility to some diseases. Albeit it prevailed that sex hormones exclusievly demarcated the body & brain, there’s more fact-finding transpiring that genes are also a direct factor. Upon further reading, there is a review with also a report on the use of a unique mouse model that divides the results of gonadal hormones & sex chromosomes. Excogitation of mental & physical health can be applied to advancement when understanding of male & female, & how the roles that hormones and genes play in sex differences, evolve with genetic technology.
The information of sexes is a quarrelsome one. Ignoring them can cause taxing discordance. Pointedly, there’s various organic shifts which specifically modifys the sexes, exempli gratia, the lack or occupancy of the Y-chromosome & the staging of gonadal hormones, even prior to birth into culture. During life, continual situations will eventualize which are seperate to each sex. Ergo, health related issues are segmented by female & male distinctive experiences.
Of selective concern for this review are sex distinctions of the brain credited to genetics. Even though in the past greater neurochemical & neuranatomical contrast were imputed to gonadal hormones, that is, estrogens & androgens, emerging data refers categorical genetic consequences on sex distinctions of the brain even earlier to the extention of gonadal hormones.
In most species, distinguishable differences of the sexes are readily discernable due to ammased physical formation & the characteristically gaudy, such as vivid feathers, etc.. Also, distinctions of size of brain features & waist-to-hip comparisons. There’s much more than just observable anatomy, such as cognition & sexuality.
From general physiological details, typical characteristics are developed: The sexes considerably differ on their consolidating of carnality, males being significantly more interested in organic, vital, & plasmic sex, as well as visual stimuli – graphic erotica, film, physical models, etc. – & variations of females, although females do indulge in their own version of pornography, more often literature, & there’s also been a study stating that Asiatic females tend to view male/visual based erotica more so than any other type of female. Female sexuality is a bit different than male sexuality; as males emphasize more visual enhancement & body parts, females are interested in more politicized sex, hence why it is more commonly found in the dramatic art of writing. According to the reports, females place more importance on foreplay & are more interested after sex. Makes sense with females stating “I’m dumping him becuase he doesn’t know what to do”. Females’ conceptional volition is very limited to materialism & sex & things directly related to it. This source excluded other factors, such as male psychological factors – rational fear/cause-&-effect thinking of future terms in conjunction to female nature, etc., & the other societal factor of the practice of male genital mutilation takeing away stronger passion. Females’ sexual desires & interests often shifts in accordance to their menstrual cycle.
Some argue differences are due to environmental factors versus innate. To smaller degrees, that’s true, but the external units are only versions of the innate. Therefore, females & males being receptive to “carving” means innate predispositions. Cross-cultural & multinational studies have found significant distinctions in sexual attitudes & behaviours. Sex differences were found regarding sociosexuality bounding 53 nations. Several twin studies have also found differences of sexuality are more influenced by biology rather than environment, & some genetic studies proposed candidate genes for sexual behaviour. The biology is the predominating factor, then the cultural aspects does some of its part. Most of all, genetic & cross national analysis of sex differences of context to sociosexuality concludes biological basis, as well as cognitive abilities & more.
Controlling nature & strategising with more options is an aspect of male cognition which drastically differentiates our biology from the female. We can either chose to strive to the latter in utilizing our different set of cognition, or we can conform ourselves to the traditional selection set from females’ primal cognition & biology which was more appropriately suited for hundreds to thousands of years ago. It’s not “emasculation”, etc., to be analytical & form new strategies by that. I’m not defending from insecurity. It’s an issue of realizing that that shaming language is a feminine-bourn trend which quite litterally has it’s roots in barbaric times that allowed females to take advantage to their usuary of masculinity. Scientists are willing to state, with their elaborate conductions, that male & female biological psychology is different, but their not willing to tell you that male cognition is excelling because those scientists are still persuaded & domesticated by feelings, particularly gynocentric, on some level, & that is a detached, scientific fact.
Even more controversial than sex differences of context to sociosexuality are sex differences in cognitivition & mental processes. A variety of distinctions on each sexes’ ability on how they perform on cognitive abilities have been proven. Two reoccurring reports of sex differences are in mental rotation task – involving spatial & mathematical processing – generally masculine – & verbal fluency – generally feminine. Tone, pronounciation is a major concern for females. It accounts for their tendency of causing reversals with their syndrome of illogical assesment of plain approaches as “creepy”, bad, poor, etc., while unnoticing of bad traits of others if they have authority presented stylishly. It’s their tendency to notice topical things which actually makes them neglectful of noticing the expansive, largely also due to the fact that females are wired for communion of baby-reading. Silent “awkwardness” is inflated because of the fact that females just don’t know how to turn it off. I believe it was Einstein who once stated: If you can’t simplify it in a formula, then you probably don’t understand it well enough. (Which is how I’ve condensed the science given from an entire book into a summary.) It’s theoretically possible that females’ tendency for disorganized, rumor level communication is due to the fact that, by history, males were vulnerable to making quick decisions – lazy & incompleletely reported as: “males as the bane of wars”, etc., doing the actual hard work, females cultivated commentary & manipulation, then narratives of females having more “emotional intelligence”, etc., manifested. J.K. Rowling, your stories are amusing, but you didn’t ultimately create that. Males created the factories & also the distribution methods, you just decorated. (Which, as a side note, the latter type of inflated female are much more masculine women. )
It’s well-known that of the rudimentary model of primates, who, due to less complex systems, don’t have “rigid gender roles,” choice for toys and activities parallel studies of human children – male monkeys chosing toy trucks. On humans, researchers found that sex distinctions of visuo-spatial faculties were natural even when those nations were more liberal of gender roles. Magnetic resonance imaging research have confirmed sex differences of cerebral blood flow patterns with cognitive tasks – results similar to studies on monkeys.
Research continues on the biological realities of cogntition & behaviour of sex differences. Factors are affected by interaction of culture & biological factors – both nature & nurture, however, biology is & was rudimentary, therefore, science is the standard to answer to how behaviour manifests in a given culture. How organisms recieves or accustoms itself to situations confirms propensity. With the aid of science & logic, we can answer how it is that females are more prone to tending, influencing, & manipulation – a large influence of the sektor of the “nurturing” cultural aspect, who tries to impinge, like children, on realism with a-logical inducement of entertainment, inflated opinions, into bureaucratic services, & give appeasement & distractions, therefore, a natural process. They want to impinge slogans of raise-your-daughter-to-be-a-warrior, etc., becuase that bombardment of communal expansiveness is itself a natural occurrance. By science, we can also confirm the various representations of male organization & assertiveness, not just crude charicatures, etc., of the cultural interpretations.
The general public believes that sex is purely based on external genitalia. There’s actually seven biological parameters that defines sex:
1. Sex chromosomes – involved in concluding the sex of an organism. Of humans, consisting of the Y- & X-chromosome.
2. Sex-determining genes- involved in development of female-typical & male-typical phenotypes – Wnt-4, Sox9, & Sry.
3. Gonads: – Organs producing gametes – overies & testes.
4. Gonadal hormones – Produced by ovaries & testes, sex steroids, estrogen & androgen, involved in first & secondary sex characteristics
5. Internal reprodcutive structures – system of connected organs involved in reproduction, such as, Mullerian ducts & wilffian ducts.
6. External reproductive structures – genitals.
7. Brain sex – The presence of sex-specific neuroanatomical parameters that are often the result of circulating gonadal hormones. Brain Sex can also define a masculine or effeminate mind, e.g., a woman can sometimes have a more masculine mind than a male.
Two significant occurences of embryogenesis advances the creation of sex-specific phenotypes. The first one is sex certainty as the undetermined gonads become either ovaries or testes. Human gonad maturing happens ~eight weeks post concieving, even though the certainty of how the gonads will mature happens during conception, that is, whether the zygote paternally recieved an x or y-chromosome. Secondly, it is sex differentiation & it is of the process of internal & external procreative networks. If an embryo creates testes, then it will start to create 3 significant biomolecules: insulin-like peptide 3, anti-mullerian hormone, & testosterone. Testosterone will cause the process of of male-typical internal reproductive tract, such as, seminal vesicles, epididymis, & vas deferens, & external reproductive matter – genitals. Mullerian-inhibiting substance, a.k.a.: Anti-Mullerian Hormone, will deconstruct what would have created the internal reproductive tract for a female. Previously termed relaxin-like factor, Insulin-like 3 causes the lowering of the testes from abdomen to scrotum. Contrastingly, if an embryo creates ovaries, it will negate those 3 biomolecules. Absence of testosterone makes decomposition of the male-specific internal reproductive tract & the external reproductive matter will manifest the labia & clitoris. Lack of Anti-Mullerian hormone causes female-typical interior procreative tract to operate, such as, upper portion of vagina & fallopian tubes. Lack of insulin peptice 3 will keep developing ovaries within abdoman.
 Radical interuptions to the process of sex determination will cause novel variations.
The classical understanding of sex distinctions, via from decades of research demonstrating the effects of gonadal hormones of vertabrates, is, historically, thought that gonads – namely testes – were the total factors of creating whole somatic sexual dimorphisms of mammals. Gonadal hormones have 2 main effects: Regulatory effects, which are irreversible & permanent during development that structures into female-typical or male-typical arrangements. The other is: activational effects. They are short term changes happening as particular hormones are present in body & frequently reliant on prior structural effects. Other than the pre-typed alterations to the reproductive structure, it was beleived that testosterone was the sole “masculinizer” of the fetus’s brain. When embryogenesis occurs, testosterone produced by the testes goes to brain during important phases of the earliest of ontogenesis where it is transfmormed to estradiol by the enzyme aromatase. The estradiol then operates on the estrogen receptor, which masculinizes particular brain zones, exempli gratia, the hypothalamus. Adding, estradiol strongly boosts the elaboration of male-typical neurocircuitry & restrains elaboration of female-typical neurocircuitry. Even though ovaries make estrogens midst female elaboration, estradiol in female fetuses is restricted from accessing the brain by a compound termed alpha-fetoprotein. Still, research on the aromatization factor of testosterone in masculinizing the brain have only been [reported: 2010] done on zoological models. Thus, it’s less assured what if any role estradiol does in making the huma brain masculine.
Comprehensively, the classical understanding on gonadal hormones translates numerous of the sex distinctions in the elaboration of the reproductive tract and the brain. However, proceeding studies has discovered that sex differences are not limited to gonadal hormones.
Proceeding research of the later half of the 20th century challeneged the once dominating classical understanding on sex differences. One case: some studies were that male rat embryos were heavier tha female ones before sex definition. Others discovered scrotal convexity of the tammar wallaby prior to sex definition.
 By 1991, it was reported that sex distinctions of the brain could be discerned before the process of sex differentiation. From mesencephalic & diencephalic cell cultures of rat embryos two weeks after conception – before surge of gonadal hormones. In these in vitro cultures, sectional distinctions were studied of the definition of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cells where females had more neurons than males, inferring that the distinction of dopaminergic neurons was independent of the ecistence of gonadal hormones. Studies on zebra finches furthered ideas of factors other than gonadal hormones as factors that could be in conjunction to development of sex distinctions. Female zebra finches do not sing a unique courtship song that males do, which is due to brain regions significantly larger of male ones. Although it was reckoned that such distinctions were present because of gonadal hormones, neither by trial.
Although it was believed that such differences existed because of gonadal hormones, neither experimentally managing hormones, such as, conducting female zebra finches with estradiol to bring “masculinization” of brain, nor making productions of cross-sex gonads, such as bringing production of ovaries in a male, chiefly modified song actions…. Further, the dissection of a gynadromorphic zebra finch – phenotypically & genotypically female on one side of body, & phenotypically & genotypically male on other side of body – indicated that only one brain hemisphere was masculinized even though both hemispheres would’ve been involved with same flowing gonadal hormones. A similar study was reported in three lateral gynandromorph chickens.
As many derived to believe that the sex-chromosome counterpart with the cell was involved in a role in sex differences, the task then became studying causative involvement. The specific challenge was separating the consequences by the sex-chromosome complement from those by gonadal sex.
A modern 2 x 2 mouse model termed: four-core genotypes mouse model, has been invented to sort the consequences of the sex chromosomes from the consequences of gonadal hormones. To use this model, scientists wield the absence or presence of the Sry gene in XY & XX mice. Sry is occupied on the Y-chromosome, & it helps testes elaborating. The mouse will cultivate testes , if Sry is infused into an XX mouse’s genome (symbolized XXSry), however, XXSry mouse are unfertile for there are particular genes on the Y-chromosome required for sperm creation. If Sry is deleted from an XY mouse (symbolized as XY-), then it won’t develop testes, instead processing as a fertile female. If Sry is eliminated from the Y-chromosome of an XY mouse & then reinserted into one of its autosomes (symbolized XY – Sry), due to presence of the Y-chromosome, the mouse will still develop as a completely fertile male.
Some investigations have employed the FCG model to analyze the direct result of gonadal hormones & sex chromosomes on sex distinctions. For whatever trait, if mice with Sry considerably diverge from mice without it, the difference can be traced to gonadal hormones. However, if mice including a Y-chromosome differ from mice without it, the dissimilarity can be connected to the counterpat of sex chromosomes. The FCG illustration can further ascertain whatever interaction that might result among gonadal hormones & sex chromosomes.
The FCG representation can be utilised to exclude the factor of gonadal hormones in sex distinctions; women & men differ of the intensity & severity to which each sense particular pain-related disorders – Raynaud’s disease, Carpal Tunnel Syndrom, & migraine headaches. They discovered that XX mice were quicker to respond to pain than to the contrasting mice when using the FCG regardless of their gonadal sex, indicating that genes on the sex chromosomes had an explicit consequence on sex distinctions in intense nociception that wasn’t mediated by gonadal hormones. FCG also shows direct effect of varying behavior of chromosomal sex of environmental reward or stimulus. Case, males are more pronet to trial & abuse of substances un-permitted by authority. Females though indicate to be more controlled by effects of such substances. By the FCG model, scientists discovered that XX & XXSry mice more rapidly gained unhealthy consumption customs for sucrose set to XY- & XYSry mice. One discovered the addiction formation in the obverse: XY- & XY-Sry mice more rapdily gained compulsive thirst addiction compared to XX & XXSry mice when substance consumed was alchohol. Therefore, although the FCG model can indicate direct effect of chromosomal sex on sexually distinctive behaviors, it can also indicate that the direct effect of sex-chromosome set is reliant on the exhibition or type of reinforcer – alcohol vs. sucrose – that organisms meet.
The FCG standard can be employed to discover any transfer effects the joined effect of doubled sex chromosomes & gonadal hormones. Males have aggression & commit violent crimes reportedly by larger frequency than females. However, there’s a seperate article that female aggression is much different than male & less reported. Psychologist: Seth Meyers, Psy. D stated his regualar trainings cites by experts that the number of female psychopaths is actually higher than documented. Relational aggression is more of a female type – damaging someone’s social status, using proxy violence, & ruining others’ relationships. The way the judicial system is operated is to prioritize femalehood, so less documented female criminals, as well as obliging to false allegations by females. With temperament by female psycopaths being a distinctly different type of comfort, arrogance, & non-domineering, it is not an “aggression” society can recognize easily, or even cares to acknowledge.[Source: Seth Meyers Psy. D., Aug. 10 , 2015. Your Field Guide To The Female Psychopath (& why we rarely see her coming.)] Not everything is documented. With the FCG standard, it was researched that there was a reciprocal effect between chromosomal sex & gonadal sex on aggression: with 3 other types of FCG mice, XX mice with ovaries had least amount of aggression. Parenting behavior was also different that showed an interaction effect. Of most species, females oblige more parenting than males. “Pup retrieval” is one instance; actively retrieving offspring removed or fallen from nest. XX mice with ovaries were more prone to persistent response to retrieving pups compared to the other three types of FCG mice. unique discoveries as these suggests how absence or presence of the Y-chromosome or gonadal secretions could influence sex specific traits.
The FCG mouse model is very good to understand the factor of sex chromosomes & gonadal hormones. Still, if an explicit corrollary of sex chromosomes is discovered, it the unique aspect of the sex specific sex chromosome summarized: Is the recognized absolute consequence due absence or presence of the y-chromosome? Or is it due to the reality of two x-chromosomes rather than one x-chromosomes? To confirm this problem, scientists can better the model to investigate the core effect of the Y- & X-chromosome. As with the original FCG model, the role of the existence of the Y-chromosome by camparing columns of the 2×2 model can be solved. Reversed, there can be a detection of the direct effect of having two X-chromosomes by comparing rows of this reduced representative. The consequences of this standard can answer the scientist as to which sex chromosome to analyze. BY comparing XO females to XX females, it’s conceivable to ascertain an effect of the number of X chromosomes. One more model that can be used if it’s definitive that the X-chromosome is the cause of the effect. Of the subsequent reformation, the source of causation for the x-chromosome is contemplated. Pointedly, is it significant if the X-chromosome is paternally transmitted – Xp0 symbolized – or maternally imparted – Xm0 symbolized? comparable tests have been done, though they didn’t proceed via the FCG mouse model. It was discovered that XmO women displayed more communal ruination – lacking awareness of own behaviour with others, onconsolable when uncomfortable, & lacking empathy – compared to Xp0. Next, a new maternally signified candidate gene – Xlr3b – affecting cognition was discovered in XmO mice. Comprehensively, the three patterns of the FCG model can help scientists investigate specific genetic systems affecting behavioral features.
Apart from the FCG mouse model, scientists can try to discover particular genes that differentiates sexes directly via the brain. Anatomizing brains of mouse embryos 10.5 days post conception-prior to the flow of gonadal hormones with association with sex terminus. 50 genes were labeled that were differently embodied between female & male, furthering the idea that genes likely have a direct effect on specific brain parts, which induces sex distinctions. Infra, it was disclosed that the Sry gene directly affected the biochemical properties in the substantia nigra causing a decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase expression-an enzyme that is a factor in the biosynthesis of dopamin. Apperantly, certain sex-specific assets of the dopaminergic neurons are controlled by genes listless of gonadal hormones.
Conclusively, many sex differences – both psychological & biological – exist with female & male. Gonadal hormones is one major facor of such differences. Accumulating research though states that not all differences are reliant on amount & presence of estrogns & androgens; sex chromosomes & genes are also a factor. What has been reviewed:The model of sex determination & differentiation is mainly directed by lack or presence of testes. The 2×2 four-core genotype mouse model is increasingly applied to disclose the role of sex chromosomes & gonadal hormones of sex differences. There was also a proposal of some refinements for scientists to use if they determine that sex chromosomes activate a more important effect than gonadal hormones. Lastly, the only known neuromolecular report on the direct effect of a specific gene involved in sex determination was presented. As sex differences being a role of welfare & health becomes critical, theres several science questions; how might inherited epigenetic mechanisms, such as histone modifications & DNA methylation, influence sex differences of the brain? Which workingscontrol sex biased gene definition of women & men, & how do they give to sex-specific diseases, like Alzeimer’s disease & Huntington’s disease? Can info. of molecular pathways be applied to tailor patiens? What degree do epigentic modification maintain & establish sex differences?

Many will resist science on sex differences, but, considering it is madentory for physiologists in application to medicine, it’s obviously an important science.

Citations: Sex Differences In The Human Brain, Their Underpinnings & Implications by Ivanka Savic. PAGES: 65 – 73.

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